Directive 2014/94/EU of 22 October 2014 "on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure" calls for the establishment of a uniform charging infrastructure in Europe.
By implementing this directive in national law, the European Member States have a legal basis for a charging infrastructure that is interoperable throughout Europe. This will increase trust in electromobility and create investment security.
According to the directive, "DC high power recharging points shall be equipped, for interoperability purposes, at least with connectors of the combined charging system ‘Combo 2’ as described in standard EN 62196-3." This is the "CCS" system that Germany had introduced to international standardization.
Combined Charging System (CCS)
Working together with charging station manufacturers, German and US car makers have developed a universal charging system for AC and DC charging.
The key feature of this system is the use of a combination vehicle inlet ("combo inlet") and the use of power line communication (PLC) technology for AC charging and for the entire DC charging process. The system comprises:
- DC charging with a "combo 2" charging system (in Europe) as described in IEC 62196-3, and a vehicle-to-grid communication interface on the basis of ISO 15118 and/or DIN SPEC 70121.
- AC charging with a type 2 plug (in Europe) in accordance with IEC 62196-2, and a vehicle-to-grid communication interface with a pilot signal as in IEC 61851-1, Annex A, and where appropriate also as in ISO 15118.
In the USA
An analogous system is used based on the type 1 plug and combo 2 system (called "CCS 1").