ForewordIntroductionScopeNormative referencesTerms and definitionsSymbols and abbreviated termsSymbolsAbbreviated termsPrincipleGeneralPrinciple of flow velocity determination at a point in the ductPrinciple of measurement of volume flow rateGeneralPrinciple of volume flow rate determination from point velocity measurementsDetermination of volume flow rate using tracer dilution measurementsDetermination of volume flow rate using transit time tracer measurementsDetermination of volume flow rate from plant thermal inputSelection of monitoring approachMonitoring objectiveChoice of technique to determine point flow velocityChoice of technique for volume flow rate and average flow determinationMeasuring equipmentGeneralMeasurement of duct areaPerformance characteristics and requirementsMeasurement procedureSite survey before testingDetermination of sampling plane and number of measurement pointsChecks before samplingGeneralPre-test leak checkCheck on stagnation and reference pressure taps (S-type Pitot tube)Tests of repeatability at a single pointSwirl or cyclonic flowQuality controlMeasurement of flow at locations within the measurement planePost-measurement quality controlCalculation of resultsGeneralMeasurement of velocityDetermination of the mean velocityCorrection of average velocity for wall effectsCalculation of the volume flow rate from the average velocityConversion of results to standard conditionsGeneralConversion of the volume flow rate to standard conditionsDry volume flow rate in standard conditionsConversion of the volume flow rate to a reference oxygen concentrationEstablishment of the uncertainty of resultsEvaluation of the methodMeasurement of velocity using differential pressure based techniques (normative)Principle of differential pressure based techniqueMeasuring equipmentPitot tubesL-typeS-type3D2DExamples of Pitot tube designsAMCA-typeNPL-typeCETIAT-typeDifferential pressure flow measurement equipmentGeneralPitot tubeDifferential pressure measurement deviceMeasurements of stack gas conditionsCalculationDetermination of velocity using differential pressure devicesDensity of the stack gasAbsolute pressure of gasMolar mass of gasVane anemometer (normative)Principle of vane anemometerCalculationBackgroundLowest range limitHighest range limitCalculation of the uncertainty and calibrationsExampleTracer gas dilution method determination of volume flow rate and average velocity (normative)Tracer gas by dilutionPrinciple of the use of tracer gas injectionTracer gas injectionTracer gas concentration measurementTracer gas calibration equipmentTracer gas injectionTracer gas concentration measurementCalculation of stack gas flow rate from tracer injection resultsUncertainty of the calibration resultGeneralUncertainty of concentration measurementUncertainty of tracer gas mixingUncertainty of tracer injection rateUncertainty of stack flow rateTransit time tracer gas method determination of average velocity (normative)Existing standardsTransit time methodPrinciple of the methodChoice of the tracerAMS flow calibration procedureCalculation of the reference valuesProvisions for measurement siteDuct areaThe length of the measurement sectionFlow conditionMinimum requirementsTracerMixingMeasurement sectionTracer concentration measurementPerformance requirementsInjectionMeasurement of the tracer pulseCalculation of the transit timeCalculation of the flow reference valueUncertainty of the calibration resultThe calculation principleUncertainty of determination of the volume and measurement of timeNumerical example of uncertainty calculation in stack flow calibrationThe uncertainty of q The total uncertaintyCalculation of flue gas volume flow rate from energy consumption (normative)PrincipleFuel factorFixed factors for commercially traded fossil fuelsFactors corrected for specific energyFactors derived from fuel compositionEnergy consumptionCalculation of flue gas volume flow ratePerformance requirementsExample of uncertainty calculationsExample 1 — Coal-fired power plantExample 2 — Biomass fired combined heat and power plantExample 3 — Natural gas fired gas turbine plantExample of uncertainty budget established for velocity and volume flow rate measurements by Pitot tube (informative)Process of uncertainty estimationGeneralDetermination of model functionQuantification of uncertainty componentsCalculation of the combined uncertaintyOther sources of errorsExample uncertainty calculationCalculation of the physicochemical characteristics of the gas effluentCalculation of uncertainty associated with the determination of local velocitiesStandard uncertainty on the coefficient of the Pitot tubeStandard uncertainty associated with the mean local dynamic pressuresStandard uncertainty associated with the density of the gas effluentStandard uncertainty associated with the molar mass of gasStandard uncertainty associated with the temperature TStandard uncertainty associated with the absolute pressure in the duct, pStandard uncertainty associated with the densityStandard uncertainty associated with the local velocitiesCalculation of uncertainty associated with the mean velocityCalculation of uncertainty in reported valuesVolume flow rate in the actual conditions of temperature, pressure, water vapour content and oxygenDescription of validation studies (informative)Overview of validation studiesGeneralMunicipal waste incinerator in DenmarkCoal-fired power plant in GermanyResults of laboratory validationResults of field validation studiesRepeatability and uncertainty of manual methods in the first field validation study.Repeatability and uncertainty of manual methods in the second field validation studyDifferential pressure measurement (informative)GeneralLiquid manometersDigital manometers and other electronic devicesGeneralTypes of pressure sensorsPiezoresistive strain gaugeCapacitive pressure sensorMagnetic pressure sensorPiezoelectric pressure sensorOptical pressure sensorPotentiometric pressure sensorResonant pressure sensorDifferential pressure gaugesThe use of time of flight measurement instruments based on modulated laser light (informative)Relationship between this International Standard and the essential requirements of EU Directives (informative)Bibliography